Pollinators strongly influence ecological relationships, ecosystem conservation and stability, genetic variation in the plant community, floral diversity, specialization and evolution. Bees play an important, but little recognized role in most terrestrial ecosystems where there is green vegetation cover for at least 3 to 4 months each year. In tropical forests, savannah woodlands, mangrove, and in temperate deciduous forests, many species of plants and animals would not survive if bees were missing.


This is because the production of seeds, nuts, berries and fruits are highly dependent on insect pollination, and among the pollinating insects, bees are the major pollinators. In rain forests, especially in high mountain forests where it is too cold for most bees, other pollinators like bats and birds play a greater role in plant pollination. In farmed areas, bees are needed for the pollination of many cultivated crops and for maintaining biodiversity in ‘islands’ of non-cultivated areas. The main role of bees in the different ecosystems is their pollination work. Other animal species are connected with bees: either because they eat the brood or honey, pollen or wax, because they are parasitic to the bees, or simply because they live within the bees hives.


Without bees there would be no flowering plants, and without flowering plants there would be no bees. Without bees biodiversity would not be so great. Biodiversity is measured as the number of different plant and animal species found in a certain unit area. Biodiversity is highest in tropical forest areas and lowest in the Arctic. High biodiversity is related to the high age of the ecosystem, and a stable environment. A stable environment creates the possibility of development of specialization and use of narrow ecological niches. The explanation of the high biodiversity in tropical forests can be as the species’ efforts to avoid attack by diseases and pests. Both can be much more serious in a tropical forest biome with a constant supply of water, and a hot and stable temperature. The high diversity with its high specialization in pollination relationships can also be a danger for the forest.


The specialist pollinator must have access to food all year round. Many of the smaller trees flower all year round or nearly all year, but the larger trees have blooming seasons. Some flower every year, others every third or fifth year, where all trees from the same species bloom at the same period and maybe even at the same hours. If the specialized bees loose their stable resources by tree cutting, they will not be there when the bigger trees require their pollination service.

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